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SIR Speaking on RTs Today with Sean ORourke last Thursday (February 1st), Tnaiste Simon Coveney made a point that politicians are lawmakers, and he reiterated that the function of the Irish State and constitution is to protect the rights and welfare of unborn children as well as the mother.
Yet, paradoxically, Irish politicians as lawmakers, remain the only politicians in Europe that support government legislation that mandates every citizen or resident in this State must consume fluoride through mandatory fluoridation of drinking water supplies.
In the current debate on the repeal of the 8th Amendment and guaranteeing the right to life of the unborn child, it is important to note that the current weight of evidence show that environmental exposure to fluoride effects many organs including the reproductive system. In particular, fluoride has been found to be associated with reproductive disorders, including infertility, low birth weight and neurotoxicity in offspring.
The most recent study published in September 2017 in the peer-reviewed journal, Environmental Health Perspectives, by a team of investigators at the University of Toronto, McGill, the Harvard School of Public Health, and other institutions found an association between prenatal exposure to fluoride and cognitive development disorders in children.
This study affirms that prenatal fluoride toxicity is an entirely preventable problem and that by working to reduce exposure and by reducing its unnecessary use, it is possible to remove fluoride exposure as a factor that limits childrens opportunities to reach their full potential.
As artificial fluoridation of drinking water is enacted by national legislation in Ireland and the mandatory ingestion of fluoride is undertaken without consent, perhaps the Government might allow a second referendum so that the public may vote on whether they wish to ingest this toxin.
Since most of Local Authorities in Ireland, including Cork City and County Councils have already voted for the abolition of water fluoridation in this State and their democratic vote has been ignored by this Government, its time that the public had a say on this highly-controversial and outdated policy.
Scientist and risk management consultant,
*Original letter online at http://www.southernstar.ie/news/roundup/articles/2018/02/11/4151956-letter-fluoride-toxicity-isentirely-p...
Prof Connetts speaking tour has got off to a good start with full houses at both Cambridge and Te Awamutu. Next talk is tonight in Whangarei Monday 12th Feb at 5.30pm at Cafler Suite, Forum North, Rust Avenue, Whangarei see details of all Talks here
Interest in this issue is growing. Especially now that towns and cities that have never had fluoridation (or have stopped fluoridation years ago) are under threat. People in these areas are particularly unhappy. They know it is not needed and they do not want this forced on them. Any Government introducing fluoridation whether it be by the front door or the back door such as the current Bill which aims to shift decision making to the DHBs will find themselves in an unenviable position.
The tour has sparked two really good articles. One in Hawkes Bay Today and the other in Whanganuis Midweek Chronicle. And the fact that Prof Connett will be speaking at Parliament at 5pm on Thursday 22nd February, has caused Nationals Health spokesperson, Jonathan Coleman, to give us more coverage by telling the media that politicians should not even listen to opposing views! See more on these below.
Please help to end fluoridation by ensuring that all the MPs, particularly PM Jacidna Ardern, Health Minister David Clark and Associat...
By Anna Hunt
Scientists are continuously discovering new ways that cannabis can benefit human health. Typically, researchers publish these discoveries in peer-reviewed journals. Yet, most cannabis research never makes its way into mainstream news. In the public eye, these studies go unnoticed.
Here are five examples of cannabis research that warrant our attention.
Opioids have recently received a fair share of scrutiny, and for a good reason. Thomas Gilson, the medical examiner for Cuyahoga County, Ohio, stated:
If you look at how many people die in the country from opiate overdose, were looking at the same number of casualties as the entire Vietnam conflict.
Could cannabis be a safer treatment for pain, without the high risk of overdose?
New cannabis research from Israel examined the safety of cannabis use among the elderly. The researchers administered cannabis treatment to 2,736 patients, with a median age of 74.5.
Research participants answered an initial questionnaire. During the study, two-thirds of the participants took cannabis for pain, and another 60.8% for cancer. After six months of cannabis treatment, the researchers administered another questionnaire.
Here are the findings, as...
Teens who consume too many energy drinks are also known to suffer from dehydration, tremors, heat stroke and heart attacks. Now the focus is on behavior. Are energy drinks turning teens into hyperactive, unhealthy, disobedient delinquents? Public perceptions seem to be shifting towards believing that.
In January, celebrity chef Jamie Oliver launched a campaign calling for a ban on sales of these drinks to children, and UK supermarkets wasted no time taking action. Waitrose was first, announcing plans to ban sales of the strongest drinks to under-16s. Others swiftly followed, vowing to introduce bans in March.
It seems common sense that a cocktail of stimulants will make kids hyperactive, but is there any actual evidence that energy drinks are harming children? The industry often compares the amount of caffeine in energy drinks to that in a cup of coffee, suggesting it must be safe. But new research suggests that the unique mix in energy drinks may pose higher risks.
An alarming increase in the consumption of sports and energy drinks, especially among adolescents, has been found to cause irreversible damage to teeth and erode tooth enamel.
Two research papers, suggest that concerns over levels of caffeine and sugar in energy drinks, and their effects on young people who drink them, are mounting.
Understanding what is in the beverages is key to managing that risk....
By Anna Hunt
A report published by the Womens Voices for the Earth (WVE) group identifies potentially harmful ingredients suppliers still use in feminine hygiene products. The organization aims to eliminate the use of these toxic chemicals to lessen the threat to womens health.
The feminine care market in the U.S. is a $3 billion dollar industry. About 80 percent of women use feminine care products, with pads and tampons being the most popular.
Producers market these products as a necessity of personal hygiene. They advertise them using terms like freshness, cleanliness and security. This implies that using these products promotes good health. Yet, this may not be the case when you examine the actual ingredients used in these products.
The WVE performed an in-depth analysis of each major category of feminine hygiene products. Below is a summary of WVEs findings.
The process of bleaching tampons with chlorine compounds may contaminate them with highly toxic dioxins. As well, tests have also shown that pesticides from non-organic cotton are present in tampons. The report states:
FDA guidance for the marketing of tampons recommends that tampons be free of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD)/2,3,7,8-tetrachlorofuran dioxin (TCDF) and any pesticide and herbicide residues. Unfortunately, this recommendation is not mandatory, and testing results reveal that both dioxins and pesticide residue are found in tampons.
This years flu season has resulted in utter-mayhem, no matter who you ask or what your opinion over the matter may well be. The media has honed in on every single case of flu symptoms...
The post Public Health Nurse Blames Flu Shot On Widespread Outbreak appeared first on Vaxxter.
By now, you may be familiar with cocoas versatility. Cocoa, which is harvested from the plant of the same name, refers to roasted cacao or cocoa beans that are ground into a powder where most of the fat has been removed.[i] Throughout the years, it has become a staple ingredient in sweet treats, and has been featured in beverages like hot cocoa.
By Dr. Mercola
Maryn McKenna is an investigative journalist and senior fellow at the Schuster Institute for Investigative Journalism at Brandeis University who has written a number of health-related books. Her latest, Big Chicken: The Incredible Story of How Antibiotics Created Modern Agriculture and Changed the Way the World Eats, exposes many aspects of the chicken industry that most people are completely unaware of.
The book grew out of an interest in antibiotic resistance, which she began investigating about 10 years ago. As noted by McKenna, antibiotic resistance is a vastly underestimated health threat.
An estimated 23,000 Americans die each year from drug-resistant infections, and even though health officials are growing increasingly concerned that drug-resistant STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) are rising at alarming rates, the issue remains largely ignored. Globally, the death toll attributed to drug-resistant infections is thought to be around 700,000 annually, and its only getting worse.
Agriculture plays a major role in this; in the U.S., four times as many antibiotics are used in livestock as are used in human medicine. On the one hand, scientists warn we need to preserve and protect antibiotics lest they end up losing their effectiveness, and on the other, the food industry is feeding them to animals, most of which are not sick. That contradiction is what set me on the journey that ended up in this book, McKenna says.
Historically, chickens were rather scrawny little birds that no one thought to consume as a primary meal on a regular basis. Today, Americans consume an average of 91 pounds of chicken each year. Chickens are growing fastest in consumption around the world because theyre very easy to raise, McKenna notes. They don't require a lot of land, for example, and can eat scraps.
If we go back to the time of our grandparents and great grandparents, almost everyone raised chickens But the reason they were there wasn't primarily to be a meat source. It was to be a source for eggs, because eggs were very inexpensive, very easy to produce protein. For the most part, we ate chicken after a hen's egg-laying days were done. ...
The Soteria that Loren Mosher opened in Santa Clara, California in 1971 was housed in a cozy older home, and his thought was that this physical environment, which was in such stark contrast to the cold floors of a hospital ward, could be a place of healing for newly psychotic patients. The mens Soteria that opened in Jerusalem in the fall of 2016the first house in a budding Soteria movement in Israelprovides that sense of comfort and something more: there is, architecturally speaking, almost a magical feel to the place.
The older stone building is located on a small side street in the center of town, perhaps a fifteen-minute walk from City Hall and the walls of the Old City. After you are buzzed in, you climb a few steps and come to a small courtyard, walled-in and yet with the open sky overhead. The space feels both cozy and partly outdoors, and at night, residents and staff lounge about on couches and chairs. From there you enter the homes common room, which is like stepping into a fanciful set for a Shakespearean play. The ceiling is two stories high, with staircases on each side leading to bedrooms and alcoves that look down on the common area, and on the left-hand wall there is a second-floor balcony protruding into the space, a feature so whimsical I nearly laughed out loud. I couldnt think of a better setting, as the Soteria doctrine goes, for being with people negotiating extreme emotional states.
I visited the mens Soteria several times in the middle of December, and the tableau that greeted me on my second visit was a typical one: a few men sat at a table eating soup, and nearby a younger man was idly hitting a punching bag hanging by the kitchen, while another was expertlyand joyfullyjuggling a few balls. Soon someone was strumming a guitar that had been propped up in the corner.
In the middle of the comings and goings, I spoke to a slightly taller man, who introduced himself as God, albeit a very modern God, as he had formed a Whats App group for those who wanted to communicate with Him, and, if I understood correctly, with Jesus too. Once I had signed up, he promised me that although God spoke in Hebrew, he would translate his comments into English for me.
This did feel a bit like traveling back in time, as I had often imagined what Moshers Soteria might have been like, and while there are a handful of other Soteria homes currently operating in the United States and other countries, what is happening today in Israel is of a different magnitude. If this initiative succeeds, Soteria homes will become a centerpiece of Israeli psychiatry.
In addition to the mens Soteria, a womens Soteria is also now operating in Jerusalem, and three more stabilizing houses, which is the governments name for this model of care, have opened in the last month. Two more st...
Dane Wigington GeoengineeringWatch.org With each passing day the transformation of our world is accelerating, the human race is pushing our once thriving planet past the point of no return. Though there is still no shortage of enthusiasm for sports spectacles like the Superbowl, a sincere interest in salvaging life on Earth is not common. Whether actively
By Matt Agorist
At the request of an Oklahoma court, a mother of seven has been sterilized as part of a judges order, setting a damning precedent in the process.
Summer Thyme Creel, 34, had the procedure in November after the judge wrote he could consider it at her sentencing if she chose to do so.
Although the procedure was voluntary, the court order to do so crosses some ominous barriers. In spite of the fact that it is described as voluntary, it stretches the definition of that term by putting Creel in the position of bartering her fertility for leniency in her sentencing.
Last year, this practice gained national attention when it was applied to prisoners. In exchange for undergoing a sterilization procedure, prisoners were given shorter sentences. However, as the ACLU pointed out at the time, this program is deceptive and even unconstitutional.
Offering a so-called choice between jail time and coerced contraception or sterilization is unconstitutional, Tennessee ACLU head Hedy Weinberg wrote in a statement. Such a choice violates the fundamental constitutional right to reproductive autonomy and bodily integrity by interfering with the intimate decision of whether and when to have a child, imposing an intrusive medical procedure on individuals who are not in a position to reject it.
Now, it appears, that the program has evolved from the prison and moved into the court.
The Transhumanist agenda is more than just Artificial Intelligence (AI), or robots taking over American jobs, or transgender restrooms at public facilities to accommodate an ever growing push for uniformity among the masses.
Transhumanism is Posthumanism. It is humanism with the optimism taken out, a movement that advocates for the transformation and the advancement of humanity through technology that runs the gamut from nanotechnology to AI. This paradigm is not limited to gadgets and medicine but also molds social, economic, cultural, institutional design, language, and the psyche.
To be clear, Transhumanism is a manufactured endpoint to human evolution
The future of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment will not be found in your medicine cabinet, rather in your kitchen cupboard or in your back yard growing on a tree.
Pomegranate Found To Prevent Coronary Artery Disease Progression
A study published in the journal Atherosclerosis confirms that pomegranate extract may prevent and/or reverse the primary pathology associated with cardiac mortality: the progressive thickening of the coronary arteries caused by the accumulation of fatty materials known as atherosclerosis.[i]
SURVIVAL MEDICINE HOUR PODCAST
You might not think its possible, but there are enough different flu viruses circulating this season that you could actually get the flu again before Spring! H3N2 is the most common form around this year, but late season flus like Influenza B could bring you down again before things warm up. Joe and Amy talk about their recovery from a nasty case of the flu and give you some important advice.
Plus, how to deal with nosebleeds with limited supplies. Nosebleeds, also known as epistaxis can occur in young or old, and for a dozen different reasons. Learn all you need to know about this common, but scary, medical problem.
Also, survival settings require your people to be at 100% efficiency, but what happens when people get pregnant? Back pain, nausea and vomiting, and much more can intervene to take out a productive member of your crew. Dr. Alton tells you about some of the issues that might complicate what is usually a normal and natural process.
All this and more in the latest Survival Medicine Hour Podcast with Amy Alton, ARNP and Joe Alton MD!
To listen in, click below:
Wishing you the best of health in good times or bad,
Joe and Amy Alton
The definition of peer support should be straightforward. A peer is an equal, someone with whom one shares demographic or social similarities. Support expresses the kind of deeply felt empathy, encouragement, and assistance that people with shared experiences can offer one another within reciprocal relationships.
But, as I found while writing a grant proposal to study peer support, preparing a literature review on this topic is complicated by the fact that there is no standard definition. Terms like peer support, peer-delivered services, consumer services, peer specialists, and peer workers are used interchangeably in the literature, making it difficult to draw meaningful distinctions among practices that are fundamentally different.
To make sense of this, I created two categories to differentiate the terms that were conflated in the research literature. One I called peer-developed peer support, and the other the peer staff model. Definitions of the two categories are offered below.
It became clear that most of the research literature I located using the search term peer support was not about peer support as people who practice it understand the idea. Instead, it was about the peer staff model, which rarely includes genuine peer support practices. Over the years, peer support seems to have morphed into peer specialist or, to put it more bluntly, psychiatric survivors experiential knowledge has been co-opted by the system. What can we do about this?
Peer-developed peer support is a non-hierarchical approach with origins in informal self-help and consciousness-raising groups organized in the 1970s by people in the ex-patients movement. It arose in reaction to negative experiences with mental health treatment and dissatisfaction with the limits of the mental patient role.12 Peer support among people with psychiatric histories is closely intertwined with experiences of powerlessness within the mental health system and with activism promoting human rights and alternatives to the medical model.3
Peer support was influenced by the human and civil rights movements of African Americans, women, and lesbians and gay men in the 1960s and 70s, and by the Independent Living (IL) movement of people with physical, sensory, and cognitive disabilities....
From The Lown Institute: The recent deaths of several beloved musicians, actors, and other public figures have brought to light the dangers of taking multiple, potentially fatal drugs.
In a recent STAT article, Dr. Lipi Roy, the medical director of the Kingsboro Addiction Treatment Center in Brooklyn, N.Y., uses the case of musician Tom Petty, who died last year of an accidental drug overdose, to unpack the complex intersections between drug abuse, polypharmacy, and mental health.
Roy explains that, like many of her patients, Petty was dealing with chronic pain and depression, as well as a history of substance abuse. The different types of medications Petty had been taking to address these conditions multiple types of opioids, benzodiazepines, and an antidepressant further increased his risk of harm.
In this piece for Community Care, Anjum Shah argues that social work academics need to pay more attention to the work of the philosopher Frantz Fanon. Currently, social work philosophy is staunchly Eurocentric.
Fanon was a philosopher, activist and humanist who wrote while deeply immersed in human suffering. A victim of racism, a WW2 veteran and active psychiatrist during the Algerian War of Independence, his work grapples with modernist thought, race, class and oppression, all dominant themes in traditional social work discourse.
Until now however, in social work knowledge, it is white thinkers that provide theory and black thinkers that provide experience for the former to explain.
More needs to be said to broaden the philosophical landscape of social work where research tends to focus on the utility of practice methods instead of theory. In an age of austerity the focus has shifted to evidence-based practice and not enough time is being given to understanding what evidence is or the politics that underpin it.
From Fear and Loathing in Bioethics: A new fifteen-minute television documentary investigates New Zealands unfortunate experiment, a horrific case of nonconsensual experimentation at the National Womens Hospital that resulted in at least 30 deaths. Although the investigation of the experiment has led to better medical ethics in New Zealand, the hospital board has not yet publicly apologized.
PMID: Oncotarget. 2017 Oct 17 ;8(49):86693-86709. Epub 2017 Sep 30. PMID: 29156828 Abstract Title: The-glucan from Lentinus edodes suppresses cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in estrogen receptor positive breast cancers. Abstract: Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in worldwide women, and novel interventions are needed to overcome the resistance occurring in the estrogen-targeted endocrine therapy. Herein, we demonstrate that the-glucan from Lentinus edodes (LNT) exhibited a profound inhibition ratio of 53% against estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF-7 tumor growth in nude mice similar to the positive control of cisplatin. Immunohistochemistry images showed that LNT evidently suppressed cell proliferation and promotedapoptosis in MCF-7 tumor tissues. The Western blotting analysis indicated that LNT up-regulated the tumor suppressor p53, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2), cleaved-Caspase 3 and poly [ADP (ribose)] polymerase 1 (PARP 1) protein levels, and reduced the expression ofmouse double minute 2 (MDM2), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) p65, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), estrogen receptor (ER), etc. in tumor tissues. Moreover, LNT significantly suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein levels. It was thus proposed that LNT inhibited MCF-7 tumor growth through suppressing cell proliferation and enhancing apoptosis possibly via multiple pathways such as PI3K/Akt/mTOR, NF-B-, ERK-, ER-, caspase- and p53-dependent pathways. Interestingly, the cell viability assay, siRNA transfection, Western blotting and flow cytometric analysis suggested that LNT targeted p53/ER to only suppress cell proliferation via cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase without apoptosis in vitro. The big difference between in vivo and in vitro data suggested that the immune responses triggered by the polysaccharide should mainly contribute to the apoptotic effect in vivo. Overall, this work provides a novel strategy to treat ER+ breast cancers by using a naturally occurring -glucan from mushrooms.
PMID: Medicines (Basel). 2018 Feb 5 ;5(1). Epub 2018 Feb 5. PMID: 29401732 Abstract Title: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Case Study. Abstract: Background: Osteoarthritis is a widespread chronic disease seen as a continuum of clinical occurrences within several phases, which go from synovial inflammation and microscopic changes of bone and cartilage to painful destructive changes of all the joint structures. Being the most common joint disease, it is the leading cause of disability in working individuals above 50 years of age. In some cases, conventional treatments produce just a mild and brief pain reduction and have considerable side-effects. Contemporary Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a model of systems biology based on a logically accessible theoretical background. It integrates several therapeutic approaches, among them acupuncture, which has shown effective results in the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis, minimizing pain, improving functionality and consequently leading to a better quality of life. Methods: The present case study included two patients with clinical signs of osteoarthritis and diagnosis of medial pain, as defined by the Heidelberg Model of TCM. Over 6 weeks, those patients were treated with acupuncture, with a frequency of one session a week. The sessions lasted for thirty minutes and were based on the needling of 4 local acupoints. Before and after each session, pain and mobility assessments were performed. Results: The results were positive, with significant reduction of pain and increased knee joint flexion amplitude and mobility. Conclusion: Acupuncture was effective as an alternative or complementary treatment of knee osteoarthritis, with high levels of improvement within a modest intervention period.
PMID: Cardiol Rev. 2018 Mar/Apr;26(2):93-98. PMID: 29419562 Abstract Title: Acupuncture and Cardiovascular Disease: Focus on Heart Failure. Abstract: Symptomatic heart failure is managed with interdisciplinary approaches to reduce acute exacerbations and to improve mortality. Acupuncture is a standardized treatment of Traditional Chinese Medicine that has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system via a neurohumoral pathway known as the long-loop pathway. This article serves to examine recent evidence supporting the long-loop pathway as the physiologic mechanism of acupuncture and the sympatholytic, vasodilatory, and cardioprotective effects of acupuncture that could specifically improve cardiac function and quality of life measures in the management of congestive heart failure.
PMID: Chin J Nat Med. 2015 May ;13(5):355-60. PMID: 25986284 Abstract Title: The polysaccharide isolated from Pleurotus nebrodensis (PN-S) shows immune-stimulating activity in RAW264.7 macrophages. Abstract: A novel Pleurotus nebrodensis polysaccharide (PN-S) was purified and characterized, and its immune-stimulating activity was evaluated in RAW264.7 macrophages. PN-S induced the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by the MTT assay. After exposure to PN-S, the phagocytosis of the macrophages was significantly improved, with remarkable changes in morphology being observed. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that PN-S promoted RAW264.7 cells to progress through S and G2/M phases. PN-S treatment enhanced the productions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), interferon gamma (INF-), and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) in the macrophages, with up-regulation of mRNA expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interferon gamma(INF-) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) being observed in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by qRT-PCR. Inconclusion, these results suggest that the purified PN-S can improve immunity by activating macrophages.
PMID: Food Funct. 2016 Jan ;7(1):455-63. PMID: 26506946 Abstract Title: Polysaccharide from Pleurotus nebrodensis induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in HepG2 cells. Abstract: A novel alkali extractable polysaccharide (designated as PNA-2) was purified from Pleurotus nebrodensis and the effects of purified PNA-2 on the proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatic cancer cells (HepG2) were investigated in this study. The results of a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that PNA-2 inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells by apoptosis induction, which was also characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the expression of apoptosis-associated mRNA, proteins and the cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase was determined using RT-qPCR, Western blot and flow cytometry, respectively. A notable inhibition of the migration rate of PNA-2-treated HepG2 cells was observed using a cell scratch assay. DNA damage was observed using a comet assay and AO/EB staining in HepG2 cells, which were exposed to PNA-2. Induction of the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway by PNA-2 was indicated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (m), Bcl-2 dysregulation and cytochrome c release. All the results suggested that the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway could be involved in PNA-2-mediated apoptosis of human liver carcinoma cells HepG2. Finally, the results indicated that PNA-2 significantly suppressed tumor growth in HepG2 tumor-bearing mice, indicating that PNA-2 may be developed as a candidate drug or functional food factor to prevent or treat liver cancer.
PMID: Int J Biol Macromol. 2017 Dec ;105(Pt 1):447-451. Epub 2017 Jul 11. PMID: 28709897 Abstract Title: A polysaccharide (PNPA) from Pleurotus nebrodensis ameliorates hepatic ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Abstract: The effects of a polysaccharide (PNPA) from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus nebrodensis on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats were explored. Severe liver injury was shown in rats following I/R with high content of serum AST and ALT, as evidenced by histological examination, whereas less damage was noted after PNPA treatment compared to rats in the I/R group. Also, pre-treatment with PNPA (400mg/kg) could reduce the level of MDA in liver tissue and increase the activity of ROS scavengers (T-AOC, SOD, CAT, GSH-PX), Nitric oxide synthase (T-NOS and iNOS), and GSH. Moreover, PNPA could still reduce the production of I/R-induced inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF- and NF-B) in liver, along with MPO. I/R-induced high level of pro-apoptotic indicators (cytochrome c, Bax, and caspase 3) and low level of anti-apoptotic indicators Bcl-2 were reversed after PNPA pretreatment. Therefore, PNPA might be a promising candidate for preventing hepatic I/R injury.
PMID: Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017 ;19(11):981-990. PMID: 29345560 Abstract Title: Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes): A Species with Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory, and Hepatoprotective Activities in Hypercholesterolemic Rats. Abstract: Lentinus edodes is a culinary-medicinal mushroom that has an established history of use in Asian therapies. The mushroom offers well-documented beneficial health effects such as antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, and antibacterial activities. In this study, dried powder of L. edodes fruiting bodies was used to evaluate immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant effects in hypercholesterolemic rats. Albino rats (n = 24) were divided into 3 groups: the control (CON) group, the hypercholesterolemia-only group (HCG), and the L. edodes group (LEG). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rats in the HCG and LEG by feeding cholesterol and cholic acid in a chow maintenance diet (CMD) for 24 days. The CON group was fed the CMD throughout the experiment. The HCG continued on the high-cholesterol diet without any L. edodes supplement. The LEG was fed the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with L. edodes for an additional 42 days. Various biological health biomarkers, such as total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, arylesterase, paraoxonase activity, and liver enzymes in serum were studied to evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective responses. Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated in each group through a delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction. The total oxidant status decreased significantly (P 0.05) after administration of L. edodes in the diet. The cell-mediated immune response significantly increased (P 0.05) in the LEG. The significant decrease in liver enzymes supports the hepatoprotective effect of L. edodes. In conclusion, the results show the immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant activities of L. edodes supplementation in hypercholesterolemic rats.
PMID: Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017 ;19(9):839-848. PMID: 29199558 Abstract Title: Identification and Evaluation of Bioactivity of Compounds from the Mushroom Pleurotus nebrodensis (Agaricomycetes) against Breast Cancer. Abstract: Breast cancer affects millions of women annually worldwide and is the leading cause of cancer death in women. Various bioactive phytochemicals based on natural products are considered to be an important source of chemopreventive agents. In this study we report-to our knowledge for the first time-9 phytochemicals isolated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry from the acetic ether extract of Pleurotus nebrodensis and identified as (1) ergosterol, (2) uracil, (3) ergosterol-3-O--D-glucopyranoside, (4) cerevisterol, (5) cerebroside B, (6) 5'-methylthioadenosine, (7) adenosine, (8) hypoxanthine, and (9) uridine. Their bioactivities were screened with an MTT assay using breast cancer MCF-7 cells in vitro. As a result, about half of the isolated compounds demonstrated moderate or strong inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Among them, compound 1 (ergosterol) exhibited superior activity and the lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration (112.65 mol/L). Further mechanistic study elucidated that compound 1 led to significant S-phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Our study shows the mycochemical composition of the P. nebrodensis mushroom and provides guidance for use of compound 1 as a promising lead in cancer therapy.
PMID: Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017 ;19(11):1001-1008. PMID: 29345562 Abstract Title: Ethanolic Extract of the Golden Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus (Agaricomycetes), Alleviates Metabolic Syndrome in Diet-Induced Obese Mice. Abstract: Pleurotus citrinopileatus is an edible medicinal mushroom rich in biomolecules and thus has a high potential for use in formulating pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. To test its effect on body weight and glucose control, we generated diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J male mice by feeding the mice a high-fat diet (60% fat) for 8 weeks and treating them with an ethanolic P. citrinopileatus extract (PCE) at either 200 or 500 mg/kg body weight for 12 additional weeks. The results showed that PCE significantly inhibited high-fat diet-induced weight gain, fat accumulation, and glucose intolerance in the DIO mice. Moreover, the PCE had a beneficial effect on liver and kidney function. On the basis of these results, we conclude that PCE is effective in the treatment of metabolic syndrome and thus could be a good candidate for use in future pharmaceutical or nutraceutical applications.
PMID: Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Jan 31 ;112:326-332. Epub 2018 Jan 31. PMID: 29371151 Abstract Title: Extraction optimization, characterization, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of a novel polysaccharide from the wild mushroom Paxillus involutus. Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the extraction of Paxillus involutus polysaccharides. The optimum conditions included an extraction time of 3h, extraction temperature of 79C and a ratio of liquid to raw material of 43.1mL/g. Under the optimized conditions, the polysaccharides yield was 12.25%. Then, the polysaccharides were purified with DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100 gel columns, and the fraction denoted as PIP2-1 with a molecular weight of 32kDa was obtained. PIP2-1 was composed of mannose, glucose, galactose, fucose with the mole percentages of 2.8%, 62.2%, 25.4% and 9.6%. The PIP2-1 possessed typical Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) characterization of polysaccharides. The methylation analysis showed that the PIP2-1 mainly included 1-linked-fuc, 1,3-linked-man, 1-linked-glc, 1,4-linked-glc, 1,6-linked-glc, 1-linked-gal, 1,6-linked-gal, 1,4,6-linked-gal and 1,2,6-gal glycosidic bonds. Furthermore, PIP2-1 showed significant antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radicals (OH), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and superoxide radicals. Finally, PIP2-1 significantly enhanced the release of TNF- and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. The results indicated that PIP2-1 could be exploited as a natural antioxidant and immunomodulator for functional food and medical applications.
PMID: Sci Rep. 2018 Feb 1 ;8(1):2175. Epub 2018 Feb 1. PMID: 29391558 Abstract Title: Polyoxygenated cyathane diterpenoids from the mushroom Cyathus africanus, and their neurotrophic and anti-neuroinflammatory activities. Abstract: In a previous study, we reported ten new polyoxygenated cyathane diterpenoids, neocyathins A-J, and their anti-neuroinflammatory effects from the liquid culture of the medicinal Basidiomycete Cyathus africanus. In the present study, eight new highly polyoxygenated cyathane diterpenoids, named neocyathins K-R (1-8), were isolated from the solid culture of C. africanus cultivated on cooked rice, together with three known congeners (9-11). The structures and the absolute configurations of the new compounds were elucidated through comprehensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic data, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data, and chemical conversion. Compounds 1 and 2 represent the first reported naturally occurring compounds with 4,9-seco-cyathane carbon skeleton incorporating an unprecedented medium-sized 9/7 fused ring system, while the 3,4-seco-cyathane derivative (3) was isolated from Cyathus species for the first time. All compounds were evaluated for their neurotrophic and anti-neuroinflammatory activity. All the isolates at 1-25M displayed differential nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth-promoting activity in PC-12 cells, while one of the compounds, allocyathin B2 (11), inhibited NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. In addition, molecular docking studies showed that compound 11 generated interactions with the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein.
By Dr. Mercola
A person lies an average of 10 times a day, according to Susan Carnicero and shes one to know. As a former CIA officer who spent more than 20 years interrogating, interviewing and polygraphing suspects, shes learned a thing or two about how to spot a liar.
In fact, Carnicero has also developed behavioral screening programs used by the U.S. government and co-written the book Spy the Lie, which teaches you how to detect deception. Shes also a co-founder of QVerity, which is a provider of behavioral analysis and screening services for both the private and public sectors.
It may seem shocking that people lie on such a regular basis, but remember that not all lies are malicious. Little white lies are told more often than big important lies, according to research published in the Journal of Language and Social Psychology,1 and this includes innocent mentions like saying youre fine when someone asks you how youre doing even if youre actually not.
Theres a wide range of lies, Carnicero notes in the video above. At one end of the spectrum are lies meant to spare somebodys feelings or keep a conversation from going in a direction you dont want it to go. At the other end are big bold-faced I didnt do it lies. Its in the latter case where being able to spot a liar can definitely work in your favor, in more scenarios than you might initially imagine. For instance, if youre hiring a new employee or thinking about investing in a financial venture, knowing the truth is certainly important.
Likewise, in your personal life, whether youre confronting your partner about potential infidelity, your child about drug use or wondering whether your new flame is trustworthy. Even when youre in the market for a new car or seeking a contractor for your home, cuing in on telltale signs of deceit can help you avoid an expensive mistake.
Its difficult, if not impossible, to tell if a person is lying just by looking at them. This would be speculation. Instead, Carnicero stresses the importance of analyzing the situation. What I want to look at is how a person is reacting to things, she says, using the example of someone sitting with their arms folded a global behavior. While this might at first appear to be a closed-off or deceptive posture, there are many reasons why someone might sit in this way, from being cold to just being a habit.
We give way too much weight to global behaviors, Carnicero says. We want to do away with that. Thats speculation. To pick out whats relevant and whats not, first identify the stimu...
By Dr. Mercola
The tickle at the back of your nose lets you know that within seconds youll be sneezing. A sneeze is also called a sternutation. This explosive release of fluid and air from your lungs, mouth and nose is involuntary and many times your bodys response to irritants in your nasal cavity.
During a sneeze your soft palate comes down and the back of your tongue rises to close off your mouth, routing most of the air from your lungs through your nose. But, since you can only partially close of your mouth with the soft palate and tongue, a considerable amount of air and fluid will also exit through your mouth.
Scientists do not believe that you can sneeze during your sleep as your body experiences a nearly complete inhibition of motor neurons, and thus movement during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.1 This lack of movement is called REM atonia. A complete REM cycle takes approximately 100 minutes,2 but you may awaken long enough to sneeze during an REM cycle or between them.
The volume of your sneeze may change over time. In some, the sneeze is loud and voluminous while others give a small toot. However loud or large, your body uses a sneeze to rid your nose of an irritant, germ or mucous and to clear the passage for better airflow.3 Pet dander, dust, pollen and germs are all common reasons to sneeze, but your body responds with a sneeze to other triggers as well.
If you suffer from seasonal allergies, youll likely have experienced the irritating and burning sensation in your nose that immediately precedes a sneeze. Those protein-based allergens are irritating and frustrating. Sneezing protects your body by clearing your nasal cavity of viruses and bacteria.4 Scientists know that more than allergens and germs trigger this sensation.
Dr. Neil Kao, allergy and asthma specialist from Greenville, South Carolina, explains that sneezing starts in your nervous system when signals passing along your nerves may take different paths to and from the brain....
PMID: J Med Food. 2015 Aug ;18(8):872-81. Epub 2015 Mar 23. PMID: 25799023 Abstract Title: Amelioration of Atherosclerosis by the New Medicinal Mushroom Grifola gargal Singer. Abstract: The beneficial effects of edible mushrooms for improving chronic intractable diseases have been documented. However, the antiatherogenic activity of the new medicinal mushroom Grifola gargal is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated whether Grifola gargal can prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was induced in ApoE lipoprotein-deficient mice by subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II. Grifola gargal extract (GGE) was prepared and intraperitoneally injected. The weight of heart and vessels, dilatation/atheroma formation of thoracic and abdominal aorta, the percentage of peripheral granulocytes, and the blood concentration of MCP-1/CCL2 were significantly reduced in mice treated with GGE compared to untreated mice. By contrast, the percentage of regulatory T cells and the plasma concentration of SDF-1/CXCL12 were significantly increased in mice treated with the mushroom extract compared to untreated mice. In vitro, GGE significantly increased the secretion of SDF-1/CXCL12, VEGF, and TGF-1 from fibroblasts compared to control. This study demonstrated for the first time that Grifola gargal therapy can enhance regulatory T cells and ameliorate atherosclerosis in mice.
PMID: J Med Food. 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20. PMID: 29261008 Abstract Title: The Medicinal Mushroom, Grifola gargal, Ameliorates Allergic Bronchial Asthma. Abstract: Grifola gargal Singer, a medicinal mushroom, has been found to be effective for the prevention and treatment of various chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the effects of G. gargal on allergic diseases are unknown. The present study investigated the effect of G. gargal extract on allergic bronchial asthma. Asthma was induced in mice by ovalbumin sensitization and inhalation. The grade of asthma was compared between mice fed with chow containing G. gargal extract and mice given standard chow. The human mast cell and eosinophilic cell lines were used for in vitro studies. G. gargal extract significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, lung eosinophilic infiltration, lung interleukin (IL)-13 expression, and plasma IgE level and significantly increased IL-10 plasma levels compared to untreated control mice. Spleen regulatory T cells were significantly increased in mice treated with the G. gargal extract compared with untreated control mice. G. gargal extract significantly suppressed expression of cytokines in mast cells and eosinophils compared with control cells. Overall, these observations show that G. gargal extract augments the lung population of regulatory T cells and ameliorates allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in mice with allergic bronchial asthma, suggesting the potential therapeutic benefit of G. gargal extract in allergic diseases.
Kratom is the easy, cheap, natural, and safe alternative to opioid painkillers and it eliminates severe drug addictions. This herb is essentially non-addictive itself, with about the same addictiveness as coffee. For these reasons, the FDA and its drug industry partners are working to eliminate this natural life-saver through deception and legal posturing.
PMID: J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2017 Nov ;9(Suppl 1):S237-S240. PMID: 29284971 Abstract Title: Assessment of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in Saliva of HIV-Infected Patients. Abstract: Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of licorice in Saliva of HIV/AIDS patients.Materials and Methods: Saliva specimens were collected from 20 people living with HIV infection, with CD4 count
PMID: Avicenna J Phytomed. 2018 Jan-Feb;8(1):24-32. PMID: 29387571 Abstract Title: Effects of aqueous extracts of dried calyx of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on polygenic dyslipidemia: A randomized clinical trial. Abstract: Objective: Dyslipidemia has been considered as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Alternative medicine has a significant role in treatment of dyslipidemia. There are controversial findings regarding the effects of sour tea on dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aqueous extract of dried calyx of sour tea on polygenic dyslipidemia.Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was done on 43 adults (30-60 years old) with polygenic dyslipidemia that were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. The control group was trained in lifestyle modifications at baseline. The intervention group was trained for lifestyle modifications at baseline and received two cups of sour tea daily, and both groups were followed up for 12 weeks. Lipid profile was evaluated at baseline, and six and 12 weeks following the intervention. In addition, dietary and physical activity assessed at baseline for twelve weeks.Results: Mean concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly decreased by up to 9.46%, 8.33%, and 9.80%, respectively, after 12 weeks in the intervention group in comparison to their baseline values. However, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio significantly increased by up to 3.15%, following 12 weeks in the control group in comparison to their baseline values. This study showed no difference in lipid profiles between the two groups, except for HDL-C concentrations.Conclusion: sour tea may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of polygenic dyslipidemia subjects and these effect might be attributed to its anthocyanins and inflation factor content. Therefore, sour tea intake with recommended dietary patterns and physical activity can be useful in regulation of lipid profile in patients with polygenic dyslipidemia.
PMID: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3. PMID: 29397502 Abstract Title: Effects of Spirulina platensis on DNA damage and chromosomal aberration against cadmium chloride-induced genotoxicity in rats. Abstract: Todays, bioactive compounds extracted from Spirulina platensis have been intensively studied for their therapeutical values. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of S. platensis extract on DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations induced by cadmium in rats. Four groups of male albino rats (n=7 rats) were used. The first group served as a control group and received distilled water. The second group was exposed intraperitoneally to cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (3.5 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 2 ml distilled water). The third group included the rats that were orally treated with S.platensis extract (1 g/kg dissolved in 5 ml distilled water, every other day for 30 days). The fourth group included the rats that were intraperitoneally and orally exposed to cadmium chloride and S. platensis, respectively. The experiment in all groups was extended for 60 days. The results ofcadmium-mediated toxicity revealed significant genetic effects (DNA fragmentation, deletion or disappearance of some base pairs of DNA, and appearance of few base pairs according to ISSR-PCR analysis). Moreover, chromosomes showed structural aberrations such as reduction of chromosomal number, chromosomal ring, chromatid deletions, chromosomal fragmentations, and dicentric chromosomes. Surprisingly, S. platensis extract plus CdCl2-treated group showed less genetic effects compared with CdCl2 alone. Further, S. platensis extract upon CdCl2 toxicity was associated with less chromosomal aberration number and nearly normal appearance of DNA fragments as indicated by the bone marrow and ISSR-PCR analysis, respectively. In conclusion, the present novel study showed that co-treatment with S. platensis extract could reduce the genotoxic effects of CdCl2 in rats.
PMID: J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017 Dec 20 ;180:89-97. Epub 2017 Dec 20. PMID: 29413706 Abstract Title: Photodynamic effect and mechanism study of selenium-enriched phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis against liver tumours. Abstract: Selenium-containing phycocyanin (Se-PC) has been proved to have many biological effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the photodynamic therapy (PDT) effects of Se-PC against liver tumour in vitro and in vivo experiment. Our results demonstrated that the half lethal dose of Se-PC PDT on HepG2 cells was 100g/ml PC containing 20% selenium. Se-PC location migration from lysosomes to mitochondria was time dependent. In in vivo experiments, the tumour inhibition rate was 75.4% in the Se-PC PDT group, compared to 52.6% in PC PDT group. Histological observations revealed that the tumour cells outside thetissue showed cellular necrosis, and those inside the tissue exhibited apoptotic nuclei and digested vacuoles in the cytoplasm after Se-PC PDT treatment. Antioxidant enzyme analysis indicated that GSH-Px activity was linked to the selenium content of Se-PC, and SOD activity was affected by PC PDT. Therefore, Se-PC PDT could induce cell death through free radical production of PDT in tumours and enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes with selenium in vivo. The mechanism of Se-PC PDT against liver tumour involves hematocyte damage and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis accompanied with autophagy inhibition during early stage of tumour development, which displayed new prospect and offered relatively safe way for cancer therapy.
PMID: Metab Brain Dis. 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25. PMID: 29372452 Abstract Title: Hibiscus rosa sinensis mediate anxiolytic effect via modulation of ionotropic GABA-A receptors: possible mechanism of action. Abstract: The current study was designed with the aim to investigate anti-anxiety potential of Hibiscus rosa sinensis roots and its possible mechanism of action. For this purpose hole board test, elevated plus maze test and light/dark exploration test were employed. The ethanol extract of plant was administered orally at two different doses i.e. 100 and 500 mg/kg for consecutive 14 days. The results of present investigation indicate that plant extract significantly (p
PMID: Food Chem. 2018 Jun 1 ;250:236-244. Epub 2018 Jan 3. PMID: 29412917 Abstract Title: Comparative analysis of Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle) hot and cold extracts in respect to their potential for-glucosidase inhibition. Abstract: Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a functional food with potential health benefits, consumed either as hot or cold beverage. To ensure quality control of its various products, accurate measurement of active metabolites is warranted. Herein, we propose a combination of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analytical platforms for the untargeted characterization of metabolites in two roselle cultivars, Aswan and Sudan-1. The analyses revealed 33 metabolites, including sugars, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic and aliphatic organic acids. Their relative contents in cultivars were assessed via principle component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis (OPLS). Impact of the different extraction methods (decoction, infusion and maceration) was compared by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy, revealing cold maceration to be optimal for preserving anthocyanins, whereas infusion was more suited for recovering organic acids. The metabolite pattern revealed by the different extraction methods was found in good correlation for their ability to inhibit-glucosidase enzyme.
PMID: BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Dec 15 ;17(1):536. Epub 2017 Dec 15. PMID: 29246138 Abstract Title: The immunomodulatory activities of licorice polysaccharides (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) in CT 26 tumor-bearing mice. Abstract: BACKGROUND: The increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has kindled the need for scientific evaluation of the mechanism of action of CAMs. Although, licorice, a common ingredient in many Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has attracted great attention for its antitumor and immunomodulatory activities, the mechanism of action of its polysaccharides is still unclear. Here we report the immunomodulatory activity of licorice polysaccharides in vivo.METHODS: The differential anticancer activities of licorice polysaccharides by tumorigenesis and immunomodulation was evaluated in vivo. Six weeks old, 120 CT-26 tumor bearing BALB/c mice, weighing 202 g were used. They were randomly divided into six groups, three groups receiving high molecular weight (fraction A), low molecular weight (fraction B) polysaccharides and crude extract (fraction C); positive, negative and normal groups receiving cytoxin, saline and normal diet respectively. Weight of mice and tumors was determined and tumorigenicity assay calculated to determine the anticancer effects. Immunomodulatory potential was determined by immune organ indices, immune cell population and serum cytokine levels using immune organ weight and index, flow cytometry and cytokine/chemokine bead panel kit respectively.RESULTS: Licorice polysaccharides exhibited immunomodulatory activities in CT 26 tumor bearing BALB/c mice. The polysaccharides significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased immune organ index. Furthermore, the immunomodulatory effect was evident with activation of CD4+ and CD8+ immune cells population. The polysaccharides also affected the production of various cytokines, by increasing IL 2, IL 6, IL 7 levels and a decreasing TNF levels.CONCLUSION: In summary, licorice polysaccharide especially of low molecular weight exhibit anticancer and immunomodulatory activities by suppressing tumor growth and improving general health of mice. They also augment the thymus/spleen index and population of T lymphocytes. Furthermore, the polysaccharides enhance the levels of serum antitumor cytokines, IL 2, IL 6 and IL 7 while decreasing pro-tumor cytokine TNF.
PMID: J Dent (Tehran). 2017 Sep ;14(5):267-274. PMID: 29296112 Abstract Title: Preventive Effect of Glycyrrhiza Glabra Extract on Oral Mucositis in Patients Under Head and Neck Radiotherapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Abstract: Objectives: About two-thirds of cancer patients undergo radiotherapy. Oral mucositis represents a major complication of radiotherapy, causing morbidity and mortality and decreasing the quality of life of patients. This study aimed to assess the preventive effect of Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract on oral mucositis in cancer patients under head and neck radiotherapy.Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, 37 head and neck cancer patients were divided into intervention (n=19) group receiving Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract and control (n=18) group receiving placebo. Patients in the test group used Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract topically twice a day from the first day of starting radiotherapy until the end of the second week. Patients were examined in the first day of radiotherapy for any type of wound before treatment and those with oral ulcers before radiotherapy were excluded from the study. The grade of mucositis was determined using the classification by the World Health Organization. ANCOVA was performed to assess any difference between the two groups with regard to oral mucosal irritation and wound size after the intervention while controlling for the covariates such as sex and age.Results: Significant differences were found in the maximum grade of mucositis and oral mucosal irritation between the intervention and control groups (P
PMID: Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Jan 21. Epub 2018 Jan 21. PMID: 29395342 Abstract Title: Purification, characterization and immunomodulatory activity of a novel polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa. Abstract: A novel bioactive polysaccharide, GFP-22, was isolated from the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Structure of GFP-22 was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), methylation, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-performance size exclusion chromatography-multi-angle laser light scattering-refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RI) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. The backbone of GFP-22 is composed of 1,4--d-Glcp, 1,3--d-Glcp, 1,6--d-Glcp, 1,6--d-Galp, 1,4,6--d-Manp and 1,3,6--d-Manp units. Molecular weight of GFP-22 is 2.72104Da. GFP-22 has a linear filamentous structure. The administration of GFP-22 could improve or reverse the CTX-induced immunosuppression, significantly enhance the spleen and thymus indices, spleen lymphocyte proliferation and cytokines production in splenocytes. These findings suggest that GFP-22 could be explored as a natural and potential immunomodulatory agent and as an alternative means of lessening chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression.
PMID: Food Funct. 2017 Nov 15 ;8(11):4081-4088. PMID: 28984888 Abstract Title: Consumption of a single serving of red raspberries per day reduces metabolic syndrome parameters in high-fat fed mice. Abstract: Using an animal model for diet-induced metabolic disease, we have shown previously that the addition of raspberry juice concentrate (RJC) and raspberry puree concentrate (RPC) at a level of 10% of kcal, equivalent to four servings per day, to an obesogenic high-fat, western-style diet (HF) significantly reduced body weight gain, serum resistin levels, and altered the expression of hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. This study was designed to examine the effect of a lower level of RJC or RPC consumption, at a level representing a single serving of food per day (2.5% of kcal). For ten weeks, four groups of C57BL/6J mice (n = 8 ea.) were fed: low fat (LF), HF, HF + RJC, or HF + RPC diets. Intake of RJC and RPC decreased final body weight. Hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly decreased in HF + RPC- and HF + RJC-fed mice, compared to HF-fed mice. Further, the relative expression of hepatic genes including Heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) and Hormone sensitive lipase (Lipe), were altered by RPC or RJC consumption. In this mouse model of diet-induced metabolic disease, consumption of the equivalent of a single daily serving of either RPC or RJC improved metabolism in mice fed HF diet. We hypothesize that the phytochemicals contained in raspberries, and/or their subsequent metabolites, may be acting to influence gene expression and other regulatory pathways, to produce the metabolic improvements observed in this study.
PMID: J Nutr Biochem. 2017 Nov 2 ;53:96-103. Epub 2017 Nov 2. PMID: 29202274 Abstract Title: Red raspberries suppress NLRP3 inflammasome and attenuate metabolic abnormalities in diet-induced obese mice. Abstract: The NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays a critical role in insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Red raspberry (RB) contains high amounts of dietary fibers and polyphenolic compounds, which are known for their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. This study evaluated the preventive effects of RB supplementation on the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and associated metabolic abnormalities induced by high fat diet (HFD). Wild-type male mice (six weeks old) were randomized into 4 groups receiving a control or typical western HFD supplemented with or without 5% freeze-dried RB for 12 weeks, when mice were sacrificed for tissue collection. HFD feeding substantially increased body weight, which was alleviated by RB supplementation towards the end of the feeding trial. Dietary RB restored the baseline blood glucose level, ameliorating glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which were aggravated by HFD. Additionally, HFD reduced O2 expenditure and CO2 production, which were ameliorated by RB consumption. The liver is the key site for energy metabolism and a key peripheral tissue responsive to insulin. RB supplementation reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in HFD mice. In agreement, RB consumption suppressed hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduced interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-18 production in HFD mice, accompanied with normalized mitochondriogenesis. These results suggest that RB consumption improves insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obesity, which is concomitant with suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome elicited by HFD. Thus, dietary RBintake is a promising strategy for ameliorating diet-induced metabolic abnormalities.
PMID: Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Feb 3 ;19(2). Epub 2018 Feb 3. PMID: 29401686 Abstract Title: Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry. Abstract: Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as-amyloid (A). Published studies support the anti-glycation and neuroprotective effects of several polyphenol-rich fruits, including berries, which are rich in anthocyanins. Herein, blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts were evaluated for: (1) total phenolic and anthocyanins contents, (2) free radical (DPPH) scavenging and reactive carbonyl species (methylglyoxal; MGO) trapping, (3) anti-glycation (using BSA-fructose and BSA-MGO models), (4) anti-A aggregation (using thermal- and MGO-induced fibrillation models), and, (5) murine microglia (BV-2) neuroprotective properties. Berry crude extracts (CE) were fractionated to yield anthocyanins-free (ACF) and anthocyanins-enriched (ACE) extracts. The berry ACEs (at 100 g/mL) showed superior free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects comparedto their respective ACFs. The berry ACEs (at 100 g/mL) inhibited both thermal- and MGO-induced A fibrillation. In addition, the berry ACEs (at 20 g/mL) reduced HO-induced reactive oxygen species production, and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species in BV-2 microglia as well asdecreased HO-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3/7 activity in BV-2 microglia. The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-A fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD.
PMID: Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017 12 1 ;27(23):5337-5343. Epub 2017 Sep 18. PMID: 29122484 Abstract Title: Delphinidin inhibits BDNF-induced migration and invasion in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Abstract: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the TrkB ligand, is associated with aggressive malignant behavior, including migration and invasion, in tumor cells and a poor prognosis in patients with various types of cancer. Delphinidin is a diphenylpropane-based polyphenolic ring structure-harboring compound, which exhibits a wide range of pharmacological activities, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-mutagenic activity. However, the possible role of delphinidin in the cancer migration and invasion is unclear. We investigated the suppressive effect of delphinidin on the cancer migration and invasion. Thus, we found that BDNF enhanced cancer migration and invasion in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell. To exam the inhibitory role of delphinidin in SKOV3 ovarian cancer migration and invasion, we investigated the use of delphinidin as inhibitors of BDNF-induced motility and invasiveness in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Here, we found that delphinidin prominently inhibited the BDNF-induced increase in cell migration and invasion of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, delphinidin remarkably inhibited BDNF-stimulated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Also, delphinidin antagonized the phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear translocation of NF-B permitted by the BDNF in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that delphinidin suppressed the BDNF-induced ovarian cancer migration and invasion through decreasing of Akt activation.
PMID: J Pineal Res. 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7. PMID: 29411894 Abstract Title: Melatonin attenuated retinal neovascularization and neuroglial dysfunction by inhibition of HIF-1-VEGF pathway in oxygen-induced retinopathy mice. Abstract: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinopathy characterized by retinal neovascularization (RNV) occurring in preterm infants treated with high concentrations of oxygen and may lead to blindness in severe cases. Currently, anti-VEGF therapy is a major treatment for ROP, but it is costly and may cause serious complications. The previous study has demonstrated that melatonin exerted neuroprotective effect against retinal ganglion cell death induced by hypoxia in neonatal rats. However, whether melatonin is anti-angiogenic and neuroglial protective in the progression of ROP remains unknown. Thus, this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on RNV and neuroglia in the retina of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mice. The results showed a reduction of retinal vascular leakage in OIR mice after melatonin treatment. Besides, the size of retinal neovascular and avascular areas, the number of pre-retinal neovascular cell nuclei and the number of proliferative vascular endothelial cells within the neovascular area were significantly decreased in mice treated with melatonin. After oxygen-induced injury, the density of astrocytes was decreased, accompanied by morphologic and functional changes of astrocytes. Besides, retinal microglia were also activated. Meanwhile, the levels of inflammatory factors were elevated. However, these pathologic processes were all hindered by melatonin treatment. Furthermore, HIF-1-VEGF pathway was activated in the retina of OIR mice, yet was suppressed in melatonin-treated OIR mice retinas. In conclusion, melatonin prevented pathologic neovascularization, protected neuroglial cells and exert anti-inflammation effect via inhibition of HIF-1-VEGF pathway in OIR retinas, suggesting that melatonin could be a promising therapeutic agent for ROP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: Molecules. 2018 Feb 6 ;23(2). Epub 2018 Feb 6. PMID: 29415446 Abstract Title: Melatonin: A Molecule for Reducing Breast Cancer Risk. Abstract: The objective of this article is to review the basis supporting the usefulness of melatonin as an adjuvant therapy for breast cancer (BC) prevention in several groups of individuals at high risk for this disease. Melatonin, as a result of its antiestrogenic and antioxidant properties, as well as its ability to improve the efficacy and reduce the side effects of conventional antiestrogens, could safely be associated with the antiestrogenic drugs presently in use. In individuals at risk of BC due to night shift work, the light-induced inhibition of melatonin secretion, with the consequent loss of its antiestrogenic effects, would be countered by administering this neurohormone. BC risk from exposure to metalloestrogens, such as cadmium, could be treated with melatonin supplements to individuals at risk of BC due to exposure to this xenoestrogen. The BC risk related to obesity may be reduced by melatonin which decrease body fat mass, inhibits the enhanced aromatase expression in obese women, increases adiponectin secretion, counteracts the oncogenic effects of elevated concentrations of leptin; and decreases blood glucose levels and insulin resistance. Despite compelling experimental evidence of melatonin's oncostatic actions being susceptible to lowering BC risk, there is still a paucity of clinical trials focused on this subject.
PMID: Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2018 Mar ;10(2):172-179. PMID: 29411558 Abstract Title: Interactions Between Bisphenol A Exposure and GSTP1 Polymorphisms in Childhood Asthma. Abstract: PURPOSE: Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure may increase the risk of asthma. Genetic polymorphisms of oxidative stress-related genes, glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTP1), manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase may be related to BPA exposure. The aim is to evaluate whether oxidative stress genes modulates associations of BPA exposure with asthma.METHODS: We conducted a case-control study comprised of 126 asthmatic children and 327 controls. Urine Bisphenol A glucuronide (BPAG) levels were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and genetic variants were analyzed by a TaqMan assay. Information on asthma and environmental exposure was collected. Analyses of variance and logistic regressions were performed to determine the association of genotypes and urine BPAG levels with asthma.RESULTS: BPAG levels were significantly associated with asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.29 per log unit increase in concentration; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.081.55). Compared to the GG genotype, children with a GSTP1 AA genotype had higher urine BPAG concentrations (geometric mean [standard error], 12.72 [4.16] vs 11.42 [2.82]; P=0.036). In children with high BPAG, the GSTP1 AA genotype was related to a higher odds of asthma than the GG genotype (aOR, 4.84; 95% CI, 1.0223.06).CONCLUSIONS: GSTP1 variants are associated with urine BPA metabolite levels. Oxidative stress genes may modulate the effect of BPA exposure on asthma.
Tooth decay is largely preventable, yet it ranks as the most common chronic disease among children. About 33 percent of young kids (ages 2 to 8) have cavities in their baby teeth, and 20 percent of kids in the same age group have cavities in their adult teeth, according to the CDC.
In Tennessee, the state received a D grade for managing childrens oral health based on key measures such as optimally fluoridated water and availability of school-based dental programs, according to The Pew Center on the States
For babys teeth and gums:
Never put a baby to bed with a bottle of milk, formula, fruit juice or sweetened liquid. When these liquids pool in a babys mouth, they form a sugary film on the babys teeth, leading to decay and infection.
Starting at birth, clean the babys gums with water and a soft cloth or child-sized toothbrush. Once a child reaches age 2, parents can start brushing a babys teeth with a soft bristled toothbrush and a smear-sized dab of fluoride toothpaste (no larger than a grain of rice), making sure to teach the toddler to spit out the toothpaste.
Schedule the babys first dental visit when the first tooth comes in, usually between the childs first six to 12 months.
For childrens teeth and gums:
Help your child brush twice a day with a small amount of fluoride toothpaste; for children ages 3 to 6, this means a pea-sized dab. Make sure your child does not swallow toothpaste, which may expose them to too much fluoride.
Begin flossing when back teeth begin to come in. Toothbrush bristles cannot reach between teeth, leaving those teeth vulnerable to bacteria and decay.
Limit sugary snacks and drinks between meals. When sugar comes in contact with teeth, decay-causing bacteria can produce acids that damage your childs teeth. Encourage children to eat healthy snacks, such as fruits and vegetables.
Take your child to the dentist regularly and ask about fluoride supplements, which make the tooth enamel strong and help protect it from decay. For most children, that means visiting the dentist twice a year.
Sealants are plastic coatings placed on back teeth to protect them from decay, and they are sometimes covered as a preventive service by dental plans. Ask the dentist about placing sealants for your child once he/she turns 6, when molars first come in.
PMID: Chemosphere. 2018 Jan 12 ;197:336-343. Epub 2018 Jan 12. PMID: 29407803 Abstract Title: Comparative effects of Bisphenol S and Bisphenol A on the development of female reproductive system in rats; a neonatal exposure study. Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA) has been well documented for its endocrine disrupting potential however, very little is known about endocrine disrupting abilities of bisphenol S (BPS). The present study aimed to compare the endocrine disrupting potentials of BPS with BPA, using female rats as an experimental animal model. On postnatal day 1 (PND 1) female pups born were randomly assigned to seven different treatments. Control group received subcutaneous injection of castor oil (50L) from PND 1 to PND 10. Three groups of female pups were injected subcutaneously with different concentrations (0.5, 5 and 50mg/kg in 50L castor oil) of BPS, while remaining three groups were treated with 0.5, 5 and 50mg/kg BPA. Highest doses treatments of both compounds resulted indelayed puberty onset and altered estrous cyclicity. Final body weight was significantly high in the highest dose treated groups of both BPS and BPA. Gonadosomatic index, absolute and relative weight of uteri was significantly reduced in BPS (5 and 50mg/kg) and BPA (5 and 50mg/kg) treated groups than control. Plasma concentrations of testosterone and estradiol were significantly increased, while plasma progesterone, Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were significantly reduced in highest doses treated groups. Dose dependent increase in the number of cystic follicles in the ovaries was evident along with an increase in the number of atratic follicles. The results suggest that neonatal exposure to higher concentrations of BPS can lead to BPA like structural and endocrine alterations in female rats.
PMID: Int J Mol Med. 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30. PMID: 29393413 Abstract Title: Suppressive effects of berberine on atherosclerosis via downregulating visfatin expression and attenuating visfatin-induced endothelial dysfunction. Abstract: Berberine (BBR) possesses significant anti-atherosclerosis properties. Visfatin is one of the most promising biomarkers of incoming atherosclerosis. However, research on the effect of BBR on regulating visfatin expression in atherogenesis remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of BBR on visfatin expression and atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. The effect of BBR on attenuating visfatin-induced endothelial dysfunction was also evaluated in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo experiments showed that BBR treatment (5 mg/kg/day) significantly reduced the serum levels of visfatin, lipid, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), the protein expression of visfatin, p-p38 MAPK and p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mice aorta and the distribution ofvisfatin in the atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/- mice fed with a Western diet. In addition, in vitro experiments indicated that visfatin (100 g/l) significantly increased apoptosis, the contents of IL-6 and TNF-, the protein levels of p-p38 MAPK, p-JNK and Bax in HUVECs, which were reversed by BBR administration (50 mol/l). Our findings suggest that BBR significantly ameliorates Western diet-induced atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice via downregulating visfatin expression, which is related to the inhibition of p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways and subsequent suppression of visfatin-induced endothelial dysfunction.
PMID: Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2018 Jan ;21(1):53-58. PMID: 29372037 Abstract Title: Neuroprotective effect of berberine chloride on cognitive impairment and hippocampal damage in experimental model of vascular dementia. Abstract: Objectives: The major objective of the present study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of berberine chloride on vascular dementia. Berberine, as an ancient medicine in China and India, is the main active component derived from the Berberis sp. Several studies have revealed the beneficial effects of berberine in various neurodegenerative disorders.Materials and Methods: To induce vascular dementia, chronic bilateral common carotid artery occlusion was performed on male Wistar rats. After surgery, the rats were treated daily by oral administration of berberine chloride (50 mg/kg) for two months. The cognition function of treated rats, were evaluated by Morris Water Maze (MWM) test. In addition, Nissl and TUNEL staining were chosen to assess neuronal damage within the hippocampal CA1 area.Results: It was obvious that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), caused cognitive impairment and neuronal damages within CA1 hippocampal subregion. Berberine chloride was able to prevent cognitive deficits, (P
PMID: Exp Ther Med. 2018 Jan ;15(1):1129-1135. Epub 2017 Nov 13. PMID: 29399112 Abstract Title: Neuroprotective effect of berberine against learning and memory deficits in diffuse axonal injury. Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the neuroprotective effect of berberine against learning and memory deficits in diffuse axonal injury (DAI). DAI rats were orally gavaged with berberine at a dose of 200 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks. Behavioral tests were used to analyze the neuroprotective effect of berberine against DAI-induced learning and memory deficits. In the present study, treatment with berberine significantly protected against DAI-induced inhibition of learning and memory in rats. Notably, berberine significantly suppressed the levels of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as reduced the protein expression levels of nuclear factor-B, Bcl-2-associated X protein and cytochrome c in DAI rats. In addition, berberine significantly suppressed the protein expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, activating transcription factor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in DAI rats. These results suggested that berberine exhibited a neuroprotective effect against learning and memory deficits in severe DAI through the suppression of inflammation, angiogenesis and apoptosis in a rat model.
Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder whose incidence has been rising dramatically in the past two decades, in step with the dramatic rise in the use of glyphosate (the active ingredient in the pervasive herbicide Roundup) on core food crops [1, 2]. While correlation does not necessarily mean causation, there are multiple mechanisms by which glyphosate's disruption of human biology, and the biology of the gut microbiome, could cause many of the observed symptoms and biological metrics associated with autism [3, 4].
PMID: Exp Ther Med. 2018 Feb ;15(2):1225-1232. Epub 2017 Nov 27. PMID: 29403554 Abstract Title: Berberine inhibits the ischemia-reperfusion injury induced inflammatory response and apoptosis of myocardial cells through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/RAC- serine/threonine-protein kinase and nuclear factor-B signaling pathways. Abstract: Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, and can lead to serious damage and dysfunction of the myocardial tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated that berberine exhibits ameliorative effects on cardiovascular disease. The present study further investigated the efficacy and potential mechanism underlying the effects of berberine on ischemia-reperfusion injury in a mouse model. Inflammatory markers were measured in the serum and levels of inflammatory proteins in myocardial cells were investigated after treatment with berberine. In addition, the apoptosis of myocardial cells was investigated after berberine treatment. Apoptosis-associated gene expression levels and apoptotic signaling pathways were analyzed in myocardial cells after treatment with berberine. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/RAC- serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) and nuclear factor (NF)-B signaling pathways were also analyzed in myocardial cells after treatment with berberine. Histological analysis was used to analyze the potential benefits of berberine in ischemia-reperfusion injury. The present study identified that inflammatory responses and inflammatory factors were decreased in the myocardial cells of the mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mechanism analysis demonstrated that berberine inhibited apoptotic protease-activating factor 1, caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression in myocardial cells. The expression of Bcl2-associated agonist of cell death, Bcl-2-like protein 1 and cellular tumor antigen p53 was upregulated. Expression of NF-B p65, inhibitor of NF-B kinase subunit (IKK-), NF-B inhibitor (IB), and NF-B activity, were inhibited in myocardial cells in the mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that berberine inhibits inflammatory responses through the NF-B signaling pathway and suppresses the apoptosis of myocardial cells via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in a mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. These results suggest that berberine is a potential drug for the treatment of patients with ischemia-reperfusion injury.
PMID: Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018 Jan 31 ;45(2):795-807. Epub 2018 Jan 31. PMID: 29414799 Abstract Title: Berberine Suppresses Cell Motility Through Downregulation of TGF-1 in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells. Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transforming growth factor-beta proteins (TGF-s) are multifunctional growth factors and powerful modulators of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a variety of cancer types including breast and lung cancer cells. Here, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of berberine (BBR) on tumor growth and metastasis of triple negative breastcancer (TNBC) cells via suppression of TGF-1 expression.METHODS: The levels of mRNA expression were analyzed by real-time PCR. The levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TGF-1 protein expression were analyzed by zymography and confocal microscopy, respectively. Cell migration was analyzed by wound healing assay. Tumorigenicity of TNBC cells such as tumor growth and metastasis was analyzed using xenograft models.RESULTS: In a clinical data set, aberrant TGF-1 expression was associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Our in vitro results using TNBC cells showed that the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and the capacity for cell migration were increased by TGF-1 treatment. In contrast, basal levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were suppressed by a specific TGF- receptor I inhibitor, SB431542. In addition, TGF-1-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and cell migration were decreased by SB431542. Interestingly, we showed for the first time that BBR decreased the level of TGF-1, but not TGF-2, in TNBC cells. Furthermore, BBR significantly decreased the level of MMP-2 expression as well as the capacity for cell migration in TNBC cells. Finally, we examined the effect of BBR on in vivo tumor growth and lung metastasis in MDA-MB231 and 4T1 breast cancer xenograft models and showed that both were significantly decreased following BBR treatment.CONCLUSION: BBR suppresses tumorigenicity of TNBC cells through inhibition of TGF-1 expression. Therefore, we demonstrate that BBR could be a promising drug for treatment of TNBC.
PMID: Indian J Ophthalmol. 2014 Dec ;62(12):1165-7. PMID: 23571265 Abstract Title: Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)-induced bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma and transient myopia. Abstract: A 27-year-old woman developed bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG) and transient myopia after taking oseltamivir for four days. On the fourth day, she received systemic and topical intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering agents, and IOP decreased in both eyes. However, her visual acuity was unchanged. A myopic shift of -5.25 D OD and -5.0 D OS was estimated to have occurred in the acute phase. A-scan ultrasonography and Pentacam showed markedly shallow anterior chambers and increased lens thickness. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed an annular ciliochoroidal effusion with forward displacement of the lens-iris diaphragm. Ciliochoroidal effusion and transient myopia were resolved after discontinuation of oseltamivir.
PMID: Medwave. 2014 May 20 ;14(4):e5953. Epub 2014 May 20. PMID: 25383799 Abstract Title: The Tamiflu saga continues: will our conduct change after the publication of the latest systematic review on benefits and harms of oseltamivir? Abstract: In 2013, we wrote about the harm, waste and deception stemming from conducts adopted by the pharmaceutical industry, by concealing raw data and Clinical Study Reports (CSRs) from the regulators view when requesting the marketing patent. We described the case of Tamiflu (Roche), a drug that has been widely used in our population and profusely prescribed by physicians. Health authorities, entailing a great cost for the countries in the region, have also purchased it. In this editorial, we will show how the idea of using antivirals for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza took hold, starting from the first enthusiastic recommendations up to the systematic review published last month in the BMJ.
PMID: Psychiatry Investig. 2010 Dec ;7(4):302-4. Epub 2010 Nov 11. PMID: 21253416 Abstract Title: Oseltamivir (tamiflu) induced depressive episode in a female adolescent. Abstract: Oseltamivir was developed for prophylactic and therapeutic use against influenza, specifically targeting the viral enzyme's highly-conserved active site. In recent years, there have been case reports of neuropsychiatric events during or after oseltamivir treatment, in Japan and other countries. However, a search of the literature revealed no such cases in South Korea. We present the case of a 15-year-old female adolescent diagnosed with depressive episode after taking oseltamivir. Oseltamivir is generally well tolerated. Its most frequent adverse effects include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In influenza patients taking oseltamivir, neuropsychiatric adverse events include delirium, behavioral disturbance, suicide, delusion, panic attack, convulsion, depressed mood, loss of consciousness, etc. Reportedly, such neuropsychiatric adverse events were more common in children than in adults and generally occurred within 48 hours of administration. Here, we report a retrospective review case of an oseltamivir-related neuropsychiatric event in a female adolescent in South Korea.
PMID: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Apr 10(4):CD008965. Epub 2014 Apr 10. PMID: 24718923 Abstract Title: Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs) are stockpiled and recommended by public health agencies for treating and preventing seasonal and pandemic influenza. They are used clinically worldwide.OBJECTIVES: To describe the potential benefits and harms of NIs for influenza in all age groups by reviewing all clinical study reports of published and unpublished randomised, placebo-controlled trials and regulatory comments.SEARCH METHODS: We searched trial registries, electronic databases (to 22 July 2013) and regulatory archives, and corresponded with manufacturers to identify all trials. We also requested clinical study reports. We focused on the primary data sources of manufacturers but we checked that there were no published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from non-manufacturer sources by running electronic searches in the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, Embase.com, PubMed (not MEDLINE), the Database of Reviews of Effects, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database and the Health Economic Evaluations Database.SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, placebo-controlled trials on adults and children with confirmed or suspected exposure to naturally occurring influenza.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted clinical study reports and assessed risk of bias using purpose-built instruments. We analysed the effects of zanamivir and oseltamivir on time to first alleviation of symptoms, influenza outcomes, complications, hospitalisations and adverse events in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. All trials were sponsored by the manufacturers.MAIN RESULTS: We obtained 107 clinical study reports from the European Medicines Agency (EMA), GlaxoSmithKline and Roche. We accessed comments by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), EMA and Japanese regulator. We included 53 trials in Stage 1 (a judgement of appropriate study design) and 46 in Stage 2 (formal analysis), including 20 oseltamivir (9623 participants) and 26 zanamivir trials (14,628 participants). Inadequate reporting put most of the zanamivir studies and half of the oseltamivir studies at a high risk of selection bias. There were inadequate measures in place to protect 11 studies of oseltamivir from performance bias due to non-identical presentation of placebo. Attrition bias was high across the oseltamivir studies and there was also evidence of selective reporting for both the zanamivir and oseltamivir studies. The placebo interventions in both sets of trials may have contained active substances. Time to first symptom alleviation. For the treat...
PMID: J Nanobiotechnology. 2018 Feb 6 ;16(1):11. Epub 2018 Feb 6. PMID: 29409496 Abstract Title: Gold nanoparticles improve metabolic profile of mice fed a high-fat diet. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Obesity is a high risk for multiple metabolic disorders due to excessive influx of energy, glucose and lipid, often from a western based diet. Low-grade inflammation plays a key role in the progression of such metabolic disorders. The anti-inflammatory property of gold compounds has been used in treating rheumatoid arthritis in the clinic. Previously we found that pure gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, 21 nm) also possess anti-inflammatory effects on the retroperitoneal fat tissue following intraperitoneal injection, by downregulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) . However, whether such an effect can change the risk of metabolic disorders in the obese has not been well studied. The study employedC57BL/6 mice fed a pellet high fat diet (HFD, 43% as fat) that were treated daily with AuNPs [low (HFD-LAu) or high (HFD-HAu) dose] via intraperitoneal injection for 9 weeks. In the in vitro study, RAW264.7 macrophages and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with low and high concentrations of AuNPs alone or together.RESULTS: The HFD-fed mice showed a significant increase in fat mass, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and liver steatosis. The HFD-LAu group showed an 8% reduction in body weight, ameliorated hyperlipidemia, and normal glucose tolerance; while the HFD-HAu group had a 5% reduction in body weight with significant improvement in their glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The underlying mechanism may be attributed to a reduction in adipose and hepatic local proinflammatory cytokine production, e.g. TNF. In vitro studies of co-cultured murine RAW264.7 macrophage and 3T3-L1 adipocytes supported this proposed mechanism.CONCLUSION: AuNPs demonstrate a promising profile for potential management of obesity related glucose and lipid disorders and are useful as a research tool for the study of biological mechanisms.
PMID: Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2017 Dec 1 ;160:254-264. Epub 2017 Sep 7. PMID: 28942160 Abstract Title: Gold nanoconjugates reinforce the potency of conjugated cisplatin and doxorubicin. Abstract: Osteosarcoma or osteogenic sarcoma is the most common and prevalent cancerous tumor of bone and occurs especially in children and teens. Recent treatment strategy includes a combination of both chemotherapy and surgeries. Although, the use of single drug-based chemotherapy treatment remains unsatisfactory. Therefore, combinatorial therapy has emerged as a potential strategy for treatment with limited side- effects. Here, we evaluated the combinatorial anticancerous effect of cisplatin (CIS) and doxorubicin (DOX) bioconjugated bromelain encapsulated gold nanoparticles (B-AuNPs conjugated CIS and DOX) in the treatment of osteosarcoma. The synthesized B-AuNPs conjugated CIS and DOX were characterized by various characterization techniques like UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and zeta potential to ensure the synthesis, size, shape, size distribution and stability. Drug loading efficiency bioconjugation of CIS and DOX was ensured by UV-vis spectroscopy. Bioconjugation of CIS and DOX was further confirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS, Zeta potential and FT-IR analysis. The combinatorial effect of CIS and DOX in B-AuNPs conjugated CIS and DOX showed highly improved potency against MG-63 and Saos-2 cells at a very low concentration where primary osteoblasts didn't show any cytotoxic effect. The apoptotic effect of B-AuNPs conjugated CIS and DOX on osteosarcoma and primary osteoblasts cells were analyzed by increased permeability of the cell membrane, condensed chromatin and deep blue fluorescent condensed nucleus. The results clearly showed that B-AuNPs conjugated CIS and DOX significantly improved the potency of both the chemotherapeutic drugs by delivering them specifically into the nucleus of cancer cells through caveolae-dependent endocytosis. Thus, the greater inhibitory effect of combinatorial drugs (B-AuNPs conjugated CIS and DOX) over single drug based chemotherapy would be of great advantage during osteosarcoma treatment.
Keep fluoride out of our water is the message from local group Whanganui Against Fluoride, which is hosting a public lecture.
Internally renowned expert Professor Paul Connett, author of The Case Against Fluoride and former director of the Fluoride Action Network, will be presenting, as part of a nationwide speaking tour, organized by Fluoride Free NZ.
This is a great opportunity for our community to hear exactly why fluoride is so dangerous to our health and environment, and why we need to keep it out of our water, says spokeswoman Lucy McDougall.
With government looking at moving the fluoridation decision from local authorities to DHSs [District Health Boards], we need to be speaking up now, or we risk our town being fluoridated whether we like it or not.
DHBs do not have to consult the public, and are required to follow the directive of the Minister of Health, via the Crown Entities Act. Like National, the Government has voiced its plans to see fluoridation extended via The Health (Fluoridation of Drinking Water) Amendment Bill.
Everybody should have a choice over what goes into their body and their water.
When a town is fluoridated, it becomes inescapable, not only to our bodies but to our environment no more organic gardening. Of the fluoride ingested only 50 per cent is excreted, the other 50 per cent accumulates in our arteries, bones and organs including the brain, says Lucy.
Science tells us it carries major systemic health risks, particularly for vulnerable infants, children, elderly, and is linked as a contributing factor in hypothyroidism, ADHD, dementia, osteoporosis, arthritis, cone cancer, and ironically it damages the teeth, with an increasing percentage of people now presenting with fluorosis (fluoride poisoning) from fluoridated water, and the use of fluoridated toothpaste, that it is not safe to swallow. Even in its natural form, The Lancet medical journal has listed it as a neurotoxin, like lead and arsenic.
What is added to community water supplies is even worse, a toxic waste of the phosphate fertiliser industry, hydrofluorosilicic acid (HFA) that is illegal to emit into the air, dump on land, or ironically in water, Lucy says.
Professor Connett will be presenting the latest research on its detrimental effects on IQ, from a US Government backed multi million dollar study.
Professor Connett has been involved in the fluoride debate for many years.
A Cambridge graduate, he holds a PhD in chemistry from Dartmouth and is a retired professor of environmental toxicology and chemistry at St Lawrence University.
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